Hawaii Bottomfish Heritage Project Will be On the Air this Weekend!

On Monday, our team joined Mike Buck in the studio to talk story about the Bottomfish Heritage Project. For the project, we’ve in turn been talking story with fishermen using a research method called “oral histories” to document their knowledge and experiences with bottomfishing through time. By comparing firsthand accounts from experienced long time fishermen across the archipelago we can better understand the origins of the fishery, why and what makes bottomfishing so special, when and why certain species are targeted, and the role of fishing in maintaining personal and community connections. We’re also learning about how changes in technology and management have affected fishermen, how fishing techniques and attitudes they have been using have changed through time, and what they now see for the future of bottomfishing in Hawaii.

Kirsten Leong NOAA Social Scientist, Kurt Kawamoto NOAA Fishery Biologist, and Clay Tam Pacific Islands Fisheries Group in the studio with Mike Buck.

The ultimate goals of the project are to preserve the wealth of history and experience existing within the fishing community, to provide documentation of this small but important fishery for future generations, and make the collected knowledge available for use in maintaining the sustainability of the fishery.

The program will air on Go Fish! with Mike Buck on Saturday afternoon (4/22) at 4 pm and again on Sunday (4/23) at 7 am, on AM 690 and online. Listen in to learn more about how the project is shaping up so far.

We’re gathering stories now, so if you or someone you know would like to add your bottomfishing knowledge to the project, please contact us!

Bob Moffitt interviews Leonard Yamada in support of the Hawaii bottomfish Heritage Project (January 2017).

Sampan bottomfishing with Masa Ibata. Masa will be sharing his bottomfishing heritage in the coming weeks. Photo courtesy of Masa Ibata

This project is supported by NOAA Preserve America Initiative and a National Marine Fisheries Service Pacific Islands Region Cooperative Research grant.

For more information about this research feel free to contact us:

pifsc.socioeconomics@noaa.gov

Or visit our introductory blog post or the Pacific Islands Fisheries Group (PIFG) project page.

For more information about other research from the PIFSC Socioeconomics Program visit our website or browse recent blog posts.

Posted in Socioeconomics | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Taking Out Trash

by Kevin O’Brien

A friend of mine from Idaho just said to me, “you know, it’s good to have a job that lets you make piles.” I smiled immediately because I totally agree with him. He said, “There’s nothing like stepping outside in the morning with your cup of coffee and just gazing at your pile.” He brought it up in the context of chopping wood, in Idaho, but I feel that the concept is particularly apt for marine debris removal.

I’ve found myself “gazing at the pile” repeatedly over the last week as our team of staff volunteers and I unloaded the debris that was shipped here from Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. All too often in the field of resource management, your daily impact is hard to visualize or quantify. Not so with something like this:

Marine Debris pile

100,000 pounds of marine debris removed from Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Kevin O’Brien).

This giant pile of marine debris13 shipping containers holding approximately 100,000 poundsrecently traveled back to Honolulu from Midway aboard the charter vessel Kahana. This debris was collected from the reefs and beaches of Midway and Kure Atoll Wildlife Sanctuary over the last six years. Some of the debris was brought back opportunistically by NOAA ships, but much of the debris had to be stored on the tarmac at Midway until it could be shipped to Honolulu.

Debris at Midway Atoll

Fishing buoys, derelict nets, and plastic debris stored on the seaplane tarmac at Midway Atoll (Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Amanda Dillon).

Thanks to support from the State of Hawai‘i, personnel from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service were able to jam-pack containers full of marine debris, crane it onto the Kahana, and ship it here to be sorted, recycled, and repurposed. You just can’t ignore the size of this pile, both as a measure of job satisfaction, but also as an indelible visual reminder of the huge challenge that we all face in combating the pervasive problem of plastics in our oceans. A problem that isn’t going away.

For the past ten years, I’ve assisted in coordinating the Coral Reef Ecosystem Program’s marine debris removal project and have seen first hand the dramatic impacts that marine debris has on our marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Since 1996, our team’s annual efforts in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, have successfully removed more than 1.9 million pounds of marine debris, mostly derelict fishing gear, from the most remote reefs and shorelines of this incredible, wild, archipelago.

Hauling nets

Kevin O’Brien and Frances Lichowski remove derelict fishing nets from the coral reefs and haul them away by small boat (Photo: NOAA Fisheries)

Some of the debris in “the pile” is a result of our efforts at Midway Atoll where we worked to develop more efficient methods for large-scale shoreline plastics removal, enabling us to tackle this difficult aspect of marine debris for the first time. Removing debris from the sensitive environment of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument is critically important in many ways. Whether it’s preventing a derelict fishing net from further smothering and fragmenting a vibrant bed of porites coral, disentangling an endangered Hawaiian monk seal, or preventatively cleaning all plastics from a mile of shoreline filled with hungry albatross chicks, these actions are one of the most immediate and tangible steps we can take to ensure the continued health of this fragile ecosystem. In addition to gazing at large satisfying piles, and the thought of lots of coffee, what continues to get me up every morning is the opportunity to continue this important hands-on work.

Albatross 2013

Kevin O’Brien carefully frees a Laysan Albatross chick that was entangled in fishing net on Eastern Island, Midway Atoll in 2013 (Photo: NOAA Fisheries)

Imagine what would happen if the trash collector stopped showing up at your home. First the can would fill up, then a few trash bags would pile up, and after a week, you’d find it spilling over into the yard and the driveway. After a few weeks, you wouldn’t be able to back your car out of the garage, and after a couple of months, the dog in your yard would be trying to lay claim to the last scrap of grassy green real estate amidst heaps of trash bags. The same analogy applies to Midway Atoll, Kure Atoll, and every island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monumentonly on a scale that is daunting and with the added element of sensitive protected species instead of your family dog.

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Laysan albatross chick surrounded by marine debris on the remote Pearl and Hermes Atoll (Photo: NOAA Fisheries).

A 2006 NOAA study estimated that 52 metric tons of derelict fishing gear alone accumulates in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands every year. That doesn’t even account for the unknown tons of plastics accumulating on the shorelines. The islands and atolls of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument are very remote. For example, Kure Atoll at the end of the chain is 1,368 miles from Honolulu. Conducting work of any kind here is difficult and costly due to the immense distances and tricky access to these islands.

The debris you see in this giant “pile” represents the collective cleanup efforts of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Staff, the State of Hawai‘i Division of Forestry and Wildlife, and NOAA, at both Midway and Kure Atolls. It also represents a significant investment by the State to transport this marine debris back to Honolulu via charter vessel- the final missing link. It was these agencies’ willingness to collaborate, pitch in resources, and think outside the box that enabled this effort to happen.

Highlighting this marine debris removal effort is, among other things, an effort to bring together the people and organizations who are actively involved in doing management work in Hawaii’s protected areasto keep the issue of marine debris in the forefront of our collective consciousness. It is my hope, that, using this successful collaborative mission as a model, we can find creative ways to continue this important work, together. Whether that’s through forging new partnerships, fostering existing ones, pooling resources to enable larger scale efforts such as this, thinking outside the box to close the loop on the open ended flow of plastics into the ocean, or tackling prevention through education and outreach, it is clear that we are stronger and more effective when we work together.

I’d like all of us who read this and find ourselves concerned with the issue of marine debris to see ourselves as a community. A community of stewards who are responsible for protecting an important natural resource. Let’s meet each other. Let’s get to know each other better. Let’s continue this dialogue in order to maintain momentum going forward. Because, despite the satisfaction we all get from looking at a big pile like this, the ultimate goal is to someday not even have one.

Midway derelict fishing nets

A black-footed albatross surveys a beach cleared of debris piles (Photo: NOAA Fisheries/David Slater).

 

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Checking the Ocean’s Pulse with Plankton

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Phronima plankton. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Jonathan Whitney.

By Joseph Bennington-Castro

At the very core of the marine food web you’ll find plankton, which are tiny organisms that propagate and feed the rest of the ocean’s marine life — indirectly feeding everyone who enjoys seafood. Plankton, by definition, are small drifters that are largely microscopic and live in the deep ocean, making it a challenge for scientists to study them.

But make no mistake: What these creatures lack in size or locomotion, they more than make up in importance. In a sense, plankton are the “lifeblood” of the ocean and studying them allows scientists to metaphorically give the ocean a blood test or check its pulse to determine its overall health, among other things.

Seeking to better understand the health and productivity of Hawaiʻi’s coastal ocean, PIFSC scientists kicked off a project last week to collect and study the plankton and micronekton (small intermediate-stage organisms that develop from plankton) off the leeward coast of Oʻahu.

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Jar of plankton. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Joseph Bennington-Castro.

The NOAA Fisheries researchers and their partners will be comparing the data they collect with similar leeward surveys conducted 1951 through 1978, earning the project the moniker “Trawling Through Time.” Ultimately, the project will help the research team, led by chief scientist Dr. Donald Kobayashi from the PIFSC Ecosystems and Oceanography Program, determine if and/or how the pelagic marine ecosystem and underlying oceanography of the leeward region has changed over time.

For this project, the researchers are conducting a series of bongo net surveys and midwater trawls off the NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette.

The bongo nets scoop up unsuspecting zooplankton, or animals that spend all or part of their life as free-floating plankton. The scientists are conducting day and night bongo net surveys at various depths, including 200 meters and 400 to 500 meters. They painstakingly sort the plankton by size (using mesh screens of various scales) in the ship’s wet lab, while the Sette continues to bob on the ocean.

Dr. Jonathan Whitney, a scientist with PIFSC-JIMAR (Joint Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research), leads the plankton team. Dr. Erica Goetze from the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa (UHM) Department of Oceanography and her recent graduate Dr. Michelle Jungbluth (now at San Francisco State University) assist Whitney as experts with copepods, one of the most abundant plankton. One of the objectives of the “Trawling Through Time” project is to determine if copepod abundance or diversity has changed over time. Also part of this important team are Zora McGinnis from the NOAA Fisheries Pacific Islands Regional Office and Shilpa Lal, a graduate student at the UHM Department of Oceanography.

The midwater trawls pick up micronekton, a category of organisms that sit between plankton and nekton, or larger marine animals that can swim freely without their motions being driven by ocean currents. Typically serving as food for nektonic species, micronekton are situated in the middle of the food web and include marine animals like small fish, cephalopods, crustaceans, and jellyfish. They have increased swimming ability compared with plankton, helping them to avoid the nets scientists use to collect them.

On the 4th day at sea, the team conducted a deep tow with a midwater trawl, reaching a depth of about 1,000 meters. Bringing the net back up was a slow and tedious process, as they had to pick out numerous snipe eels and other mesopelagic fishes (those living at depths of 200 to 1000 meters) from the meshes in the forward part of the net as it was hauled back aboard the ship.

The trawl was quite successful, however, and the researchers collected various unusual-looking mesopelagic fish and micronekton, which they excitedly categorized back in the wet lab.

PIFSC JIMAR scientist Dr. Johanna Wren leads the the trawl team, which also includes Dr. John Denton from the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, Justin Ossolinski and Rory Driskell from the PIFSC Science Operations Division, recently retired PIFSC scientist Robert Humphreys Jr., and UHM undergraduate Yuuki Niimi. Dr. Denton is an expert in myctophids (lanternfishes), a family of fish that’s ubiquitous in the world’s oceans and one of the most abundant type of fishes around. One of the objectives of the project is to determine if myctophid abundance or diversity has changed over time.

The scientists are finishing the last of their their bongo net surveys and midwater trawls, and will then begin analyzing their data back on land. Given scientific concerns about the impact of climate change and other anthropogenic (human-related) factors on coastal fisheries and ecosystems, this research is vital to help scientists understand ocean resiliency, health, and productivity.

Learn more about the project here. And check out some of the team’s other collections below.

 

 

 

Posted in Ecosystems and Oceanography, Uncategorized | Tagged , , , , , , , , ,

An Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management Planning workshop in North Samar, Philippines

by Supin Wongbusarakum
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Vessel moored by the banks of the river in North Samar, Philippines. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Supin Wongbusarakum

“As a government employee, I will share all my knowledge and put in all my effort by doing my tasks the best I can to ensure success of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM) plan. Being new to the government and the concept, I will study and do more research on how to make this more effective. As an individual, I will encourage my friends to protect nature in any simple way they can in their every day life.”

– A commitment statement by a local governmental unit officer at the EAFM Workshop, Calbayog, Philippines, January 30–February 2, 2017
Fresh fish at a harbor market

Fresh fish sold at the local harbor market. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Supin Wongbusarakum

We arrived in the town of Calbayog in Visayas Province, Philippines the weekend before our EAFM workshop, supported by USAID, with partners from the USAID-funded ECOFISH project and officers from the Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. We began setting up the room for the workshop activities and EAFM planning process. Collectively, we pooled our creativity to transform a long, narrow room into a welcoming venue where approximately 50 local governmental unit officials from 16 municipalities from the region could work together for the next four days. The objective for the workshop was to develop an EAFM plan for the fisheries management unit in the San Bernardino Strait and Ticao Pass—moving from theory to practice with an ecosystem approach to fisheries management and sustainable development. Because we needed to reserve wall space to display workshop output each day, we posted some of the posters on the ceiling. Surprisingly, everything looked great!

Abundance of Nipa palms in the wetland

Nipa palm trees line the coast of the wetlands. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Supin Wongbusarakum

From the windows of the meeting room, we could see a big river with incredibly lush and green vegetation along both banks and mountains in the distance.  The light evening breeze matched the slow and gentle flow of the river. As the sun dropped below the horizon we found ourselves wrapped in a pleasant stillness, with just the sound of the water slipping by and evening insects as company. Most of us were in deep thought about what we would need to do to ensure that this workshop for EAFM planning in the Philippines would be a success and set a good precedent for more to follow.

Sunset in Calbayog

The sun sets behind a boat on the Calbayog coast. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Supin Wongbusarakum

As night fell, a local ECOFISH staffer said we might see fireflies. Having been in many places where wetlands were paved over for development, I could not remember the last time I had seen fireflies. Then, in the midst of this reverie, I heard our ECOFISH colleagues shout, “Fireflies!” Here and there around us were tiny flashing lights. As the night got darker, some trees along the banks were filled with hundreds of fireflies. The effect was magical. Throughout the EAFM planning workshop, this image of firefly-lit trees kept surfacing as a reminder that there are still places where development has not covered over nature’s magic, and as an incentive for achieving a balance between people’s resource needs and the management and stewardship of ecosystems.

Boat by river bank

Fishing boat moored on the banks of the river. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Supin Wongbusarakum

In the workshop, we discussed this goal of balancing ecological health with human well-being through good governance. We outlined the principles of an EAFM that include coordination and cooperation for multiple objectives and precautionary approaches to address uncertainty. We went through a full EAFM planning process—the local governmental officials defined their fisheries management area, threats and issues, goals, objectives, management activities, monitoring, and financial plans. Similar to many of the areas where we work, the major threats and issues discussed in Calbayog were related to degraded fisheries resources, poverty, illegal fishing, and weak enforcement. These problems are interlinked and have to be addressed holistically, which is exactly what an ecosystem approach to fisheries management offers. We discussed different ways to sustain fisheries and develop alternative livelihoods that will help lessen pressures on marine resources. We also took into consideration different ways to engage other stakeholder groups that rely on these marine resources.

On the last day, I was asked to help close the workshop. I shared my thoughts about the fireflies of Calbayog, my impressions of the immensely valuable wetlands surrounding us, and how our work together would contribute to conserving coastal and the marine resources for future generations. The abundance of fireflies in Calbayog was not just a magic moment in my life, it was for me, a sign of how much nature around us remains intact. I asked all the participants to reflect on how each of us is committed to the goal of balancing nature and human well-being. One by one, participants came up and posted commitment statements as we thanked each other for contributing to a very productive workshop. We all agreed that it is important to continue working together so that future generations will be able to witness natural occurrences as magical as the fireflies of Calbayog.

With thanks to USAID, ECOFISH, and the Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources for supporting this workshop.

 

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#FieldWorkWin: Signing off from Saipan

By Marie Hill, Amanda Bradford, Allan Ligon, and Adam Ü

We recently concluded a series of small-boat surveys for whales and dolphins (aka cetaceans) off Saipan in the Mariana Archipelago. Our primary target species was the endangered western North Pacific humpback whale.  Between February 11-22, we were able to survey on 6 days.  We were not able to survey as much as we would have liked due to rough sea conditions and stormy weather.  Despite this challenge, we had 13 encounters with a total of 25 individual humpback whales (including 2 calves), more than twice the number of individuals we photo-identified in each of our two previous field seasons (2015 and 2016).

Survey tracks (gray lines) and cetacean encounter locations during our small-boat surveys off Saipan (February 11-22, 2017)

We collected biopsy samples from 11 whales (that we will use for genetic analyses) and fluke images from 19 whales (that we will use for comparing to other North Pacific humpback whale photo-identification catalogs).  Most of the whales that we encountered this year are new to us. However, three individuals were seen in previous years and are in our photo-identification catalog.  One is a male that we photographed and biopsy sampled in 2015. Another is a female that we photographed and biopsy sampled last year.  She was with a calf in 2016 but not this year. The third was an individual of unknown sex that was first seen in 2007 during a shipboard survey in the Marianas conducted by the U.S. Navy. We collected a biopsy sample of this whale and will now be able to determine its sex.  This is the second humpback that we have matched to the 2007 survey.

A male humpback whale photographed off the west side of Saipan in 2015 and 2017. Photos: NOAA Fisheries/Marie Hill

One of our humpback whale encounters was particularly interesting because it was with a very active competitive group of five whales.  Breeding humpback whales are known to form competitive groups where males compete with each other for access to females.  One of the whales repeatedly lunged out of the water with his mouth full of water and slapped his “chin” on the surface creating a big splash. He was letting the other males know that he meant business!

A male member of a competitive group of breeding humpback whales displays to other males in the group. Photos: NOAA Fisheries/Amanda Bradford

During our short-finned pilot whale encounter on our first day of surveys, we deployed a satellite tag on an individual that we last reported off the east side of the island of Pagan.  We thought that the tag had come off the animal because we had not received any transmission for a 4 day period. On February 27, we started receiving signals again! The whale was 120 nautical miles southeast of its previous location and appeared to be following the Marianas Trench south.  Over the following week the tagged whale continued to move south going back and forth across the Mariana Trench until the tag stopped transmitting on March 10th.  Preliminary matching to our photo-identification catalog revealed that this group of short-finned pilot whales is new to us.  We have seen some groups of individuals multiple times over the years that regularly use the waters around the southernmost islands of the Mariana Archipelago (Guam, Rota, Saipan, Tinian, and Aguijan), but other groups may only be occasional visitors to these islands.

Track from a satellite tag deployed on a short-finned pilot whale at Marpi Reef (about 10 nautical miles north of Saipan) on February 11, 2017.

All photos taken with research permits (NMFS and CNMI DFW).  Funding was provided by U.S. Navy Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet and PIFSC.  We would like to thank those individuals and organizations that provided logistical support, including Mike Trianni (PIFSC CNMI); Steve McKagan (PIRO CNMI); the CNMI DFW; Sam Markos, Benigno Sablan, Benigno Sablan Jr., Ymanuel Sablan, Aisha Sablan, and Claire Sablan (owner, captains, and crew of the Sea Hunter); and the Hyatt Regency.

Posted in Protected Species | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Listening Along Longlines for False Killer Whales

By Ali Bayless

 A scientific paper was recently published by Fisheries Research that describes an investigation of the sounds made by false killer whales near longline fishing gear and how these sounds relate to fishing activity and depredation. Depredation is the act of a marine mammal removing fish, either bait or target catch, from fishing gear. PIFSC scientist and lead author of the paper Ali Bayless describes the issue of depredation and how her team’s research is helping us to better understand how to reduce it.

Fishermen in Hawai‘i use a fishing technique known as “longline” that uses baited hooks targeting bigeye tuna attached at regular intervals along a main line that stretches for miles behind the boat. False killer whales are known to take tuna as well as bait from longlines at high rates in certain areas of the Pacific Ocean, a behavior known as depredation. This behavior can cause a whale to become hooked or entangled in fishing gear, which can lead to injury and even death of the animal. This type of unintentional injury and death (called bycatch) exceeded sustainable levels for the population of false killer whales in pelagic (offshore) waters of Hawai`i. The aim of our research is to better understand and ultimately reduce false killer whale depredation and bycatch.

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False killer whale hooked in the mouth on longline gear after attempting to take bait or catch from the line. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Pacific Islands Region Observer Program

Observations of false killer whales interacting with longline gear are limited since this activity mostly occurs underwater at depths between 40 and 100 meters.  However, false killer whales make specific sounds that are easily detected and identified, which makes acoustics (that is, the science of sound) a great way of determining whether these animals are present around longline fishing gear.  By monitoring these sounds, we can learn more about when and where whales interact with the gear in relation to specific fishing activities.

In order to monitor longline fishing sets for false killer whale sounds, a sturdy, light-weight acoustic recorder was needed that could be easily used by fishermen with minimal disruption to the fishing process.  We partnered with engineers at Scripps Institution of Oceanography in California to develop such a system, and the longline High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package (HARP) was born.  The HARP is made up of a hydrophone (underwater microphone) and a pressure case that houses a small computer set up to save all recorded sounds. The HARP can be easily attached directly to the main fishing line among branchlines with baited hooks as shown in the diagram below.

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Diagram of longline fishing set with HARP attached.

The fishing vessel Katy Mary was hired to complete a total of 6 fishing trips for this study and multiple HARPs were attached on each fishing set, spread across the length of the main fishing line.  With multiple HARPs, we were able to record sounds across an entire set and capture any false killer whale sounds within range of the recorders.

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HARPs onboard the fishing vessel Katy Mary getting prepared for deployment on longlines. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Josh Tucker

A total of 90 fishing sets on the Katy Mary were monitored for false killer whale sounds in 2013 and 2014. We listened for two different types of sounds made by false killer whales: echolocation clicks and whistles.  We heard false killer whales 26 different times on 19 different fishing sets. The timing of false killer whale sounds was related to the timing of fishing activities, and 57% of detections were found to occur when fishermen were hauling the gear back on board the vessel.  This suggests that there may be some sound related to the hauling of fishing gear that these animals are cueing in on, much like a dinner bell would alert us to the presence of food nearby.

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The number of false killer whale sound detections was highest during the hauling phase of fishing operations. Detections were either clicks, whistles, or a combination of both.

Movements of false killer whales along fishing lines were also investigated by looking at sound detections across multiple HARPs on a given set. We found that detections got sequentially farther away from the vessel during the haul, suggesting that the animals are aware of the vessel’s location and movement and have some motivation to stay ahead of the vessel.  This also supports the idea that there may be a sound cue related to the hauling of the gear that animals are reacting to.

False killer whale presence near fishing lines was also compared with depredation records for each set.  Only 3 of the 19 sets with false killer whale sound detections also showed signs of depredation, meaning there were visible signs of damage to hooked target fish. However, only catch depredation can be reliably determined by visual inspection of retrieved lines. It is possible that undetected bait depredation was also occurring and may be more prevalent than previously thought.

This novel approach to understanding how false killer whales interact with longline gear has provided an efficient and easy-to-use system for acoustic monitoring of the Hawai‘i longline fishery. This work is ongoing with deployments of HARPs on vessels across the fleet on a volunteer basis to further understand how and when these interactions are occurring.

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False killer whales are highly social and form stable, long-term bonds. They even share food with each other. We hope our work leads to less of this food coming from longlines. Photo: NOAA Fisheries/Adam Ü

Many thanks to Jerry Ray (captain of the Katy Mary) and his crew, Josh Tucker and the PIRO Observer Program, and our collaborators at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Funding for this research was provided by PIFSC, PIRO, the NMFS Take-Reduction and Bycatch Reduction Engineering Programs, the Marine Mammal Commission, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

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